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LLLI Center for Breastfeeding Information

BREASTFEEDING AND OSTEOPOROSIS

Selected Bibliography
April 2003

Alderman, B.W. et al. Reproductive history and postmenopausal risk of hip and forearm fracture. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124(2):262-67.

Aloia, J.F. et al. Determinants of bone mass in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143:1700-04.

Aloia, J.F. et al. Risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Am J Med 1985; 78:95-100.

Blaauw, R. et al. Risk factors for the development of osteoporosis in a South African population. SAMJ 1994; 84:328-32.

Caird, L.E. et al. Oral progestogen-only contraception may protect against loss of bone mass in breast-feeding women. Clin Endocrinol 1994; 41:739-45.

Carranza-Lira, S. & Mera Paz, J. Influence of number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time on bone mineral density. Int J Fertil 2002;47(4):169-71

Chan, G.M. et al. Growth and bone mineralization of normal breast-fed infants and the effects of lactation on maternal bone mineral status. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36:438-43.

Cole, D.E.C. et al. Changing osteocalcin concentrations during pregnancy and lactation: implications for maternal mineral metabolism. J Clin Endocrin Met 1987; 65(2):290-94.

Cross, N.A. et al. Changes in bone mineral density and markers of bone remodeling during lactation and postweaning in women consuming high amounts of calcium. J Bone Min Res 1995; 10(9):1312-20.

Cumming, R.G. et al. Breastfeeding and other reproductive factors and the risk of hip fractures in elderly women. Int J Epidemiol 1993; 22(4):684-91.

Dobnig, H. et al. Elevated parathyroid hormone-related peptide levels after human gestation: relationship to changes in bone and mineral metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80(12):3699-707.

Feldblum, P.J. et al. Lactation history and bone mineral density among perimenopausal women. Epidemiology 1992; 3(6):527-31.

Fox, K. et al. Reproductive correlates of bone mass in elderly women. J Bone & Min Res 1993; 8(8):901-08.

Frisancho, A.R. et al. Unaltered cortical area of pregnant and lactating women studies of the second metacarpal bone in North and Central American populations. Invest Radiol 1971; 6:119-21.

Hayslip, C.C. et al. The effects of lactation on bone mineral content in healthy postpartum women. Obstet Gynecol 1989; 73(4):588-92.

Henderson III, P. H. et al. Bone mineral density in grand multiparous women with extended lactation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182(6):1371-77

Hillman, L. et al. Control of mineral homeostasis during lactation: interrelationships of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, prolactin, and estradiol. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981; 139:471-75.

Hirota, T. et al. Effect of diet and lifestyle on bone mass in Asian young women. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55:1168-73.

Hreshchyshyn, M.M. et al. Associations of parity, breast-feeding, and birth control pills with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 159(2):318-22.

Kalkwarf, H.J. et al. The effect of calcium supplementation on bone density during lactation and after weaning. N Engl J Med 1997; 337(8):523-28.

Kalkwarf, H.J. et al. Intestinal calcium absorption of women during lactation and after weaning. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63(4):526-31.

Kalkwarf, H.J. et al. Bone mineral loss during lactation and recovery after weaning. Obstet Gynecol 1995; 86(1):26-32.

Kent, G.N. et al. Human lactation: forearm trabecular bone loss, increased bone turnover, and renal conservation of calcium and inorganic phosphate with recovery of bone mass following weaning. J Bone Min Res 1990; 5(4):361-69.

Klein, C.J. et al. A longitudinal study of urinary calcium, magnesium, and zinc excretion in lactating and nonlactating postpartum women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61:779-86.

Koetting, C.A. et al. Wrist, spine, and hip bone density in women with variable histories of lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 48:1479-81.

Kreiger, N. et al. An epidemiologic study of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 1982; 116(1):141-48.

Kritz-Silverstein, D. et al. Pregnancy and lactation as determinants of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136(9):1052-59.

Lamke, B. et al. Changes of bone mineral content during pregnancy and lactation. Acta Obstet Gyn Scand 1977; 56:217-19.

Laskey, M.A. et al. Effect of pregnancy on recovery of lactational bone loss. Lancet 1997; 349(9064):1518-19.

Laskey, M.A. & Prentice A. Bone mineral changes during and after lactation. Obstet Gynecol 1999-10; 94(4):608-15

Lissner, L. et al. Bone mineral content in relation to lactation history in pre-and postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 1991; 48:319-25.

Mehta, S. Bone loss, contraception and lactation. Acta Obst Gyn Scand 1993; 72:148-56.

Michaelsson, K. et al. Influence of parity and lactation on hip fracture risk. Am J Epidemiol 2001-6-15;153(12):1166-72

Paton, L. M. et al. Pregnancy and lactation have no long-term deleterious effect on measures of bone mineral in healthy women: a twin study. Am J Clin Nutr 2003-3;77(3):707-14

Polatti, F. et al. Bone mineral changes during and after lactation. Obstet Gynecol 1999-7;94(1):52-56

Prentice, A. Calcium supplementation during breast-feeding. N Engl J Med 1997; 337(8):558-59.

Prentice, A. et al. Calcium requirements of lactating Gambian mothers: effects of a calcium supplement on breast-milk calcium concentration, maternal bone mineral content, and urinary calcium excretion. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 62(1):58-67.

Sinigaglia, L. et al. Effect of lactation on postmenopausal bone mineral density of the lumbar spine. J Reprod Med 1996; 41(6):439-43.

Sowers, M.F. et al. Elevated parathyroid hormone-related peptide associated with lactation and bone density loss. JAMA 1996; 276(7):549-54.

Sowers, M.F. Changes in bone density with lactation. JAMA 1993; 269(24):3130-35.

Specker, B.L. et al. Changes in calcium homeostasis over the first year postpartum: effect of lactation and weaning. Obstet Gynecol 1991; 78(1):56-62.

Stevenson, J.C. et al. A physiological role for calcitonin: protection of the maternal skeleton. Lancet 1979; II(8146):769-70.

Yamaga, A. et al. Changes in bone mass as determined by ultrasound and biochemical markers of bone turnover during pregnancy and puerperium: a longitudinal study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81(2):752-56.

Zhang, J. et al. Moderate physical activity and bone density among perimenopausal women. Am J Public Health 1992; 82(5):736-38.

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