持续哺乳你的宝宝-在新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV; COVID-19)和其他呼吸道疾病感染威胁下

持续哺乳你的宝宝-在新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV; COVID-19)和其他呼吸道疾病感染威胁下

Categories: News From LLLI, 简体中文

2020年2月19日
分类:国际母乳会新闻稿

MEDIA RELEASE媒体发布

联络信息: zion@llli.org
Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
https://www.lllasia.org/coronavirus-and-breastfeeding-chinese

目前,新闻中出现的新型冠状病毒(COVID-19),正迅速发展影响全球医疗,信息却有限的情况。 La Leche League International(LLLI)国际母乳会尊重国际健康、医疗组织及其相关团体努力在跟进对病毒的了解,保持最新信息和建议。 LLLI国际母乳会也将持续追踪此次当前危及全球健康的发展。

基于超过60年的母乳喂养经验,国际母乳会坚定地鼓励所有家庭,认识到母乳喂养为母乳宝宝提供免疫保护的重要性。在多数情况下,即使父母或其他家庭成员受到感染生病,母乳宝宝依然保持健康。越来越多的研究表明,婴儿可以从母乳中获得多种多样化的免疫蛋白(包括抗体)中受益,尤其是亲喂母乳。

那些在产前不久感染并在产后哺乳的妈妈,以及在哺乳期感染的妈妈,她们的乳汁中会产生特定的分泌型IgA抗体和许多其他关键的免疫因子,来保护婴儿并增强婴儿自身的免疫反应。此时,这些免疫因子将帮助婴儿的身体更有效地应对暴露在病毒和受到感染的情况。遵循良好的卫生习惯也将有助于减少病毒的传播。

如果母乳妈妈生病,很重要的是保持母乳亲喂。婴儿已经由妈妈和/或家人暴露于该病毒中,继续哺乳亲喂将提供给婴儿最多的保护。

哺乳的中断可能导致以下几个问题:

  • 对哺乳期的婴儿或幼儿造成严重的情感创伤,
  • 挤奶无法满足婴儿的需求而导致乳量下降,
  • 由于引入奶瓶,婴儿日后拒绝乳房,
  • 由于缺乏直接母乳亲喂和在特定时间挤奶,没有配合婴儿需求,而导致保护性免疫因子下降,以及
  • 由于缺乏直接母乳亲喂的免疫支持,增加婴儿生病的风险。

最后一点至关重要:当一个家庭的任何成员都已经暴露在病毒时,婴儿就已经也暴露了。因此,任何母乳喂养的中断,实际上可能会增加婴儿生病甚至重病的风险。

鼓励任何认为自己可能患有COVID-19(也称为新型冠状病毒; 2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV-2)的人遵循良好的卫生习惯,例如:彻底洗手并戴防护口罩以防止病毒传播。如果母亲病重到需要住院治疗,则应尽可能允许婴儿继续母乳哺喂,并牢记以上列出的任何分开或中断母乳哺喂可能导致的结果。在极端严峻的情况下,如果认为在医学上需要中断母乳哺喂,则建议用手挤奶或使用吸奶气挤奶。在这种情况下,可以将含有多种免疫因子的母奶喂给婴儿,以防止婴儿受到感染或在婴儿生病时帮助减少感染的严重程度和持续时间。

世界卫生组织(WHO)在WHO网站上以多种语言提供有关冠状病毒的指南和其他信息。联合国儿童基金会也提供有关COVID-19感染下进行哺乳的信息。链接以下数据里的网站以供参考。
以上所有信息也适用于受到流感和其他呼吸道病毒感染威胁的家庭。

原始资料翻译来源: 国际母乳会新闻稿。
https://www.llli.org/coronavirus/ 

REFERENCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; 28 January 2020). About 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019 – nCoV). Accessed 29 January 2020 and 12 February 2020 from:
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; 17 February 2020). Frequently Asked Questions and Answers: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy. Accessed 18 February 2020 from:
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/specific-groups/pregnancy-faq.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; 15 February 2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Accessed 19 February 2020 from:
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/faq.html

Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet 2020; published online Feb 12 2020 at:
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3

China National Health Commission. Transcript of Press Conference on Feb 7, 2020 in Chinese. Available at:
http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/s3574/202002/5bc099fc9144445297e8776838e57ddc.shtml

Lam, C.M., Wong, S.F., Leung, T.N., Chow, K.M., Yu, W.C., Wong, T.Y., Lai, S.T. and Ho, L.C. (2004), A case‐controlled study comparing clinical course and outcomes of pregnant and non‐pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 111: 771-774.

Scientific American (12 February 2020). Disease Caused by the Novel Coronavirus Officially Has a Name: COVID-19. Accessed 12 February 2020 from:
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/disease-caused-by-the-novel-coronavirus-officially-has-a-name-covid-19/

Shek CC, Ng PC, Fung GP, et al. Infants born to mothers with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Pediatrics 2003; 112: e254.

UNICEF (February 2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): What parents should know. Accessed 18 February 2020 from :
https://www.unicef.org/stories/novel-coronavirus-outbreak-what-parents-should-know

Wong SF, Chow KM, Leung TN, et al. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of women with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 292–97.

World Health Organization (WHO; 20 January 2020). Home care for patients with suspected novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection presenting with mild symptoms and management of contacts: Interim guidance 20 January 2020. Accessed 29 January 2020 from:
https://www.who.int/publications-detail/home-care-for-patients-with-suspected-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-presenting-with-mild-symptoms-and-management-of-contacts

World Health Organization (WHO, 2020). Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Accessed 12 February 2020 from:
https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019

Zhu H, Wang L, Fang C, et al. Clinical analysis of 10 neonates born to mothers with 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Transl Pediatr 2020; published online Feb 10 2020. DOI:10.21037/tp.2020.02.06.