References in relation to COVID-19, Childbirth, Breastfeeding and Donor Milk

References in relation to COVID-19, Childbirth, Breastfeeding and Donor Milk

Categories: News From LLLI

Updated 9 September 2020
References in Spanish here
References in Italian here 

Skip to:
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENERAL GUIDANCE
CURRENT REFERENCES ON BEST PRACTICES IN RELATION TO COVID-19 AND CHILDBIRTH AND BREASTFEEDING
RESEARCH INTO ANTIBODIES TO COVID-19 IN HUMAN MILK
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR HANDLING DONOR MILK
RECOMMENDED SOURCES REGARDING HUMAN RIGHTS IN CHILDBIRTH

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GENERAL GUIDANCE

World Health Organization, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: Myth busters,
https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public/myth-busters
(accessed 16 April 2020)

CURRENT REFERENCES ON BEST PRACTICES IN RELATION TO COVID-19 AND CHILDBIRTH AND BREASTFEEDING

Vega M, Hughes F, Bernstein PS, et al.  From the Trenches: Inpatient Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Pregnancy, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM, Volume 2, Issue 3, Supplement, August 2020
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32838260/
(accessed 9 September 2020)

Centeno-Tablante E, Medina-Rivera M, Finkelstein JL, et al. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Through Breast Milk and Breastfeeding: a Living Systematic Review, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 28 Aug 2020
https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nyas.14477
(accessed 9 September 2020)

Patil UP, Maru S, Krishnan P, et al. Newborns of COVID19 Mothers: Short-term Outcomes of Colocating and Breastfeeding from the Pandemic’s Epicenter, Journal of Perinatology, 10 August 2020.>
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41372-020-0765-3
(accessed 9 September 2020)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Evaluation and Management Consideration for Neonates At Risk for COVID-19, 3 August 2020,
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/caring-for-newborns.html
(accessed 7 September 2020)

World Health Organization, Clinical management of COVID-19, for breastfeeding see pages 41-44, 27 May 2020
https://www.who.int/publications-detail/clinical-management-of-covid-19
(accessed 2 June 2020)

Cecília Tomori, Karleen Gribble, Aunchalee E.L. Palmquist, Mija‐Tesse Ververs, Marielle S. Gross, When Separation is not the Answer: Breastfeeding Mothers and Infants affected by COVID‐19, Maternal and Child Nutrition, 26 May 2020
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mcn.13033
(accessed 2 June 2020)

World Health Organization (WHO), Frequently Asked Questions: Breastfeeding and COVID-19 For health care workers, 28 April 2020,
https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/maternal-health/faqs-breastfeeding-and-covid-19.pdf
(accessed 30 April 2020)

World Health Organization (WHO), Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected, 13 March 2020,
https://www.who.int/publications-detail/clinical-management-of-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-when-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-is-suspected
(accessed 16 April 2020)

World Health Organization (WHO), Q&A on COVID-19 and Breastfeeding, 24 April 2020,
https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-on-covid-19-and-breastfeeding
(accessed 30 April 2020)

PMNCH and WHO, Breastfeeding and COVID-19 video, 28 May 2020
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dJlWAj0ZKjA&feature=youtu.be
(accessed 2 June 2020)

UNICEF, Breastfeeding safely during the COVID-19 pandemic, 28 May 2020,
https://www.unicef.org/coronavirus/breastfeeding-safely-during-covid-19-pandemic
(accessed 2 June 2020)

UNICEF and USAID Advancing Nutrition, Infant and Young Child Feeding Recommendations When COVID-19 is Suspected or Confirmed, 24 April 2020,
High resolution set of 10 cards: https://www.advancingnutrition.org/sites/default/files/2020-04/IYCF%20in%20Context%20of%20COVID%2019%20Big%20%281%29.pdf
Technical brief: https://us14.campaign-archive.com/?u=fb1d9aabd6c823bef179830e9&id=725280ee31
(accessed 30 April 2020)

UNICEF Global Nutrition Cluster, Global Technical Assistance Mechanism briefing Infant & Young Child Feeding In The Context Of Covid-19, 30 March 2020
https://www.ennonline.net/attachments/3366/IYCF-Programming-in-the-context-of-COVID-19-Brief-2_v1-30-March-2020_-for-distribution.pdf
(accessed 16 April; 2020)

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Coronavirus infection and pregnancy, https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/coronavirus-pregnancy/covid-19-virus-infection-and-pregnancy/
(accessed 16 April 2020)

Ad interim indications of the Italian Society of Neonatology endorsed by the Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies, Breastfeeding and Coronavirus Disease2019, 3 April 2020
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mcn.13010
(accessed 16 April 2020)

Government of Canada, Pregnancy, childbirth and caring for newborns: Advice for mothers (COVID-19), date modified: 20 April 2020,
https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/publications/diseases-conditions/pregnancy-advise-mothers.html
(accessed 23 April 2020)

Gouvernment de Canada, Grossesse, accouchement et soins des nouveau-nés : conseils à l’intention des mères (COVID-19), date de modification: 20 Avril 2020,
https://www.canada.ca/fr/sante-publique/services/publications/maladies-et-affections/grossesse-conseils-meres.html
(accessed 23 April 2020)

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM), Statement  on Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), 10 March 2020,
https://www.bfmed.org/abm-statement-coronavirus
(accessed 16 April 2020)

The International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML), ISRHML Activities and Guidance Related to COVID-19,
https://www.isrhml.com/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3368
(accessed 16 April 2020)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Considerations for Inpatient Obstetric Healthcare Settings, 4 April 2020,
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/inpatient-obstetric-healthcare-guidance.html
(accessed 16 April 2020)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/pregnancy-breastfeeding.html
(accessed 15 April 2020)

Research into antibodies to COVID-19 in human milk

World Health Organization, Breastfeeding and COVID-19, 23 June 2020
https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/breastfeeding-and-covid-19
” IgA antibodies with reactivity to the COVID-19 virus have been detected in breastmilk of mothers previously infected with COVID-19 but their strength and durability have not yet been adequately studied to address protection from COVID-19 among breastfed infants.”
(accessed 9 September 2020)

Emerging Microbes & Infections, Volume 9, 2020 – Issue 1, Antibodies in the breast milk of a maternal woman with COVID-19, 18 June 2020
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22221751.2020.1780952
” A maternal woman was positive for SARS-CoV-2 tested in throat swabs but negative tested in other body fluids, and she had IgG and IgA detected in breast milk. Her infant negative for SARS-CoV-2 at birth had elevated IgG in serum but quickly decayed. These findings suggest that breastfeeding might have the potential benefit to the neonates.”
(accessed 9 September 2020)

medRxiv, Breastmilk; a source of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA antibodies, 21 August 2020
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.18.20176743v1
” Breastmilk of mothers who recovered from COVID-19 contains significant amounts of IgA against SARS-CoV-2, both before and after pasteurization.”
(accessed 9 September 2020)

medRxiv, Evidence of a significant secretory-IgA-dominant SARS-CoV-2 immune response in human milk following recovery from COVID-19, 8 May 2020
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.04.20089995v1
” Overall, these data indicate that there is strong sIgA-dominant SARS-CoV-2 immune response in human milk after infection in the majority of individuals, and that a comprehensive study of this response is highly warranted.”
(accessed 9 September 2020)

Demers-Mathieu V, Dung M, Mathijssen GB, et al. Difference in Levels of SARSCoV-2 S1 and S2 subunits- and nucleocapsid protein-reactive SIgM/IgM, IgG and SIgA/IgA Antibodies in Human Milk, Journal of Perinatology Original Research through Mothers Milk Cooperative (Boulder City, Nevada, USA), 1 September 2020
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41372-020-00805-w
(accessed 9 September 2020)

SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR HANDLING DONOR MILK

The Lancet, Dr. Natalie Schenker, Maintaining safety and service provision in human milk banking: a call to action in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, 6 May 2020
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanchi/article/PIIS2352-4642(20)30134-6/fulltext
(accessed 8 May 2020)

Human Milk Banking Association of North America, Why Donor Human Milk is an Essential Need During COVID-19, 4 April 2020
https://www.hmbana.org/file_download/inline/90d5f710-fac5-4515-a784-c2ce4a0a0a34
(accessed 16 April 2020)

Hearts Milk Bank, UK, I’m donating my milk – what do I need to know about Covid-19?
http://heartsmilkbank.org/donating-milk-covid-19/
(accessed 16 April 2020)

RECOMMENDED SOURCES REGARDING HUMAN RIGHTS IN CHILDBIRTH

United Nations Human Rights Council, https://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/chr/pages/commissiononhumanrights.aspx
(accessed 16 April 2020)

Human Rights Watch, Banning Companions During Childbirth Strips Women of Support, 27 March 2020,
https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/03/27/banning-companions-during-childbirth-strips-women-support
(accessed 16 April 2020)

Human Rights in Childbirth, https://humanrightsinchildbirth.org/
(accessed 16 April 2020)

Amnesty International briefing, Maternal Health is a Human Right,
https://www.amnesty.org.uk/files/mm_briefing_lores.pdf
(accessed 16 April 2020)

The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO),
https://www.figo.org/
(accessed 16 April 2020)

International Confederation of Midwives,
https://www.internationalmidwives.org/
(accessed 16 April 2020)

The White Ribbon Alliance, Respectful Maternity Care,
https://www.whiteribbonalliance.org/rmctoolkit/
(accessed 16 April 2020)

You can print to paper or to a PDF file.

For best printing results, open the llli.org site in Google Chrome or Microsoft Edge. Although you can view the site well in any browser, printing from other browsers might not operate correctly.

1. Browse to the web document that you want to print.

2. Click the Print button that is displayed on the web page (not the Print command on the browser menu or toolbar).
This opens the browser print window. The window displays a preview of the document that will be printed. The preview might take a minute to display, depending on the document size.

3. In the Printer box, select the desired printer.
For example, if you are working on a Windows computer, and you want to print to a PDF file, select Save as PDF.

4. As required, configure the other options such as the pages to print.

5. Click the Print button.
If you are generating a PDF, click Save. You are prompted for the name and folder location to save the file.